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Role of microglia in neuroprotection and remyelination processes in MS (Accredited by EACCME)

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Microglia are a class of innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the space of just a few years they have become a major focus of attention in multiple sclerosis (MS) research and as a therapeutic target to prevent disability progression in persons with MS.

This e-learning module is part of a series of 5 e-learning modules created by ParadigMS on ‘the role of Microglia in Multiple Sclerosis’. Each module has a lead author and several contributors, all are neurologists with an expertise in multiple sclerosis and members of ParadigMS.

You will receive an EACCME certificate and 0,5 European CME credit (ECMEC®) upon completing the e-learning and successfully passing the exam. Should you not be able to download the certificate, or need any further information, please contact:

This self paced e-learning covers ‘neuroprotection and remyelination processes in MS’ in the context of Microglia.

About this module

In this e-Learning section, ParadigMS Expert and highly respected MS neurologist Prof. Nikolaos Grigoriadis provides an overview of remyelination and how this process is a key mechanism to providing neuroprotection during MS.

Normally functioning microglia regulate remyelination through several mechanisms, such as phagocytosis of myelin debris following a demyelinating episode. However, in the MS brain, the aberrant activation of microglia at the site of a brain lesion may be inhibitory to the recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to the site and their differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes, the cells that form myelin. Moreover, the absence of chemoattractants and growth factors secreted by normally functioning microglia to support the recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of OPCs to create a supportive environment for remyelination is likely to be detrimental to the brain’s capacity to recover from neurodegenerative damage.

As most currently available disease-modifying therapies are not brain-penetrant, they are unlikely to have any significant effect on the remyelinating process. Future classes DMTs aiming to modulate microglial responses may facilitate remyelination, and thereby provide neuroprotection as well as reduce disability progression due to ongoing neurodegeneration.

By the end of this e-learning module, participants will:

• Understand why remyelination is considered a key mechanism to provide neuroprotection during MS;

• Understand the mechanisms through which microglia regulates remyelination;

• Understand current and future DMTs’ effects on the remyelinating process to provide neuroprotection.


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