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Clinical progression and the relation with innate immune cells (Accredited by EACCME)

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Microglia are a class of innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the space of just a few years they have become a major focus of attention in multiple sclerosis (MS) research and as a therapeutic target to prevent disability progression in persons with MS.

This e-learning module is part of a series of 5 e-learning modules created by ParadigMS on ‘the role of Microglia in Multiple Sclerosis’. Each module has a lead author and several contributors, all are neurologists with an expertise in multiple sclerosis and members of ParadigMS.

You will receive an EACCME certificate and 0,5 European CME credit (ECMEC®) upon completing the e-learning and successfully passing the exam. Should you not be able to download the certificate, or need any further information, please contact:

This self paced e-learning cover ‘clinical progression and the relation with innate immune cells’ in the context of Microglia.

About this module

The historical classification of multiple sclerosis in terms of different phenotypes (relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive) has led to their interpretation as separate entities characterised by acute inflammation in the relapsing form of the disease and chronic neuroinflammation in progressive forms. However, evidence now suggests that all phenotypes lie on an MS continuum, and that acute and chronic inflammation are present to different extents in each form.

Professor Carlo Pozzilli – ParadigMS Expert and noted Italian MS neurologist – digs down into the pathophysiology of MS to explain the MS continuum, showing how acute inflammation is caused by adaptive immune system cells entering the central nervous system from the periphery, while chronic neuroinflammation can be explained by the presence of compartmentalized immune cells trapped behind the blood-brain barrier. This latter phenomenon has implications for the activation of microglia in the brain and subsequent induction of neurodegenerative processes.

By the end of this e-learning module, participants will:
• Have a better understanding of the pathogenesis of MS

• Be able to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with disease progression

• Understand why activated microglia  are destructive in progressive MS. 


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